XML Treatment for Bostrichus capucinus. XML Treatment for Heterobostrychus aequalis. XML Treatment for Sinoxylon unidentatum. XML Treatment for Scobicia chevrieri. XML Treatment for Xyloperthella picea. XML Treatment for Apate monachus. Abstract The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands are reviewed.
Keywords: Bostrichidae , new records, new synonym, alien species, Malta, Italy.
Introduction The larvae of most species of this family are wood borers, and as other saproxylic organisms they play an important role in the decomposition processes. Material and methods Study area The study area comprises all of the Maltese islands c. Faunistic list For each species, the following information is provided: nomenclatural combinations listed chronologically-alphabetically of the Maltese records found in the literature, literature records on the Maltese Islands, material examined, chorotype, data on ecology, and notes.
Zoogeography Chorotypes, which were also used in the zoogeographical analysis, were assigned according to Vigna Taglianti et al. Main collectors AF A. Falzon; DD D. Dandria; D. Abu Hantash]; DM D. Mifsud; GN G. Nardi; HB H. Borg Barthet; LC L. Cassar; LF L. Fancello; PS P. Literature records. Material examined. Subfamily Dinoderinae C. Other material examined. Table 1. COS Amphicerus bimaculatus! AFM Apate monachus! Open in a separate window. Bostrichus capucinus Keywords: Animalia , Coleoptera , Bostrichidae. Heterobostrychus aequalis Keywords: Animalia , Coleoptera , Bostrichidae.
Xyloperthella picea Keywords: Animalia , Coleoptera , Bostrichidae. Table 2. References Abivardi C. Applied entomology. Mitteilungen Landesmuseum Joanneum, Zoologie 51 : 55— Pakistan Entomologist 30 1 : 31— Journal of Stored Products Research 32 2 : — Turkish Journal of Zoology 32 : — Trees Ficus carica cv. Calymirna L. Turkish Journal of Zoology 29 : — A provisional annotated checklist of saproxylic Coleoptera.
Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. A revised and annotated list. Angelini F. Basilicata, Potenza. Alfagrafica Volonnino, Lavello, pp. Risorsa Natura in Basilicata. Le Aree protette regionali. Pakistan Entomologist 27 1 : 89— Journal of Stored Products Research 48 : — Zashchita Rastenii 5 : Pakistan Entomologist 31 2 : — Eds Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana, Calderini, Bologna , 1— Aydin N, Soran H. Turkiye I. Journal of Entomology 8 6 : — Zoologica baetica 24 : 25— Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 47 4 : — Heteropterus Revista de Entomologia 1 : 25— In: Barriga JE.
Coleoptera Neotropical. Pars quinta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 17 : — Journal of Animal Ecology 44 3 : — Journal of Biogeography 19 2 : — Insecta Mundi : 1—5. Informatore fitopatologico 35 2 : 15— Journal of Stored Products Research 40 : — Indian Forest Records 2 : — Part 3. Plant Protection Science 48 2 : 94— Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 42 : 87— Journal of Biogeography 33 1 : — Eds Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera.
Volume 4. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, — In: Lobl I, Smetana A. Volume 8. Curculionoidea II. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 33— Wydawnictwo Mantis, Olsztyn, pp. Annales Zoologici 59 2 : — Annali della Sperimentazione agraria n. Osservatorio della Sardegna. Informatore fitopatologico 12 4 : — Landwirtschaft Schweiz 6 1 : 10— Dermestoidea, Bostrychoidea, Cleroidea et Lymexyloidea. PNW, Muz. PAN Warszawa, pp.
Forest Ecology and Management : — Israel Journal of Entomology 1 : 15— Israel Journal of Entomology 2 : — Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 59 3 : — Quaternary Science Reviews 52 : 24— In: Baldini E, Scaramuzzi F. Eds Gli Agrumi. Coleoptera Lyctidae e Bostrychidae. Proceedings of an international Seminar, Manila, Philippines, 27—30 May , — Chararas C, Balachowsky R. In: Balachowsky R. Tome I.
Mason et Cie. Legno, carta, tessuti, pellame e altri materiali. Calderini Edagricole, Bologna, pp. Pentsoft, Sofia—Moscow, Series Faunistica 31, pp. Buchreiche zur Entomologie 12 : — Informatore fitopatologico 41 11 : 21— In: Domenichini G. In: Cravedi P. Louis Mesmin. Miscellanea entomologica 17 1 : 1—6. A case study from New Zealand and implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 83 2 : — Informatore fitopatologico 12 : — Eds Fauna of Arabia. Chapter 8.
Eds Alien terrestrial arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4 1 : — Derwesh AI. Informatore fitopatologico, 50 supplemento a Terra e Vita 26 : 26— Rivista coleotterologica italiana 6 5 : 93— Journal of Stored Products Research 48 : 1— In: Adler C, Schoeller M. IOBC wprs Bulletin 23 10 : 39— Graellsia 7 : 43— Graellsia 28 : 37— Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus.
Proft, Hafniae, pp. In: Ciancio O. Atti del Terzo Congresso Nazionale di Selvicoltura per il miglioramento e la conservazione dei boschi italiani , 16—19 Ottobre , Taormina Messina , volume secondo Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali, — Eds Atlas of Biodiversity Risks. Pensoft, Sofia—Moscow, 68— Contributi scientifico-pratici per una migliore conoscenza ed utilizzazione del legno 30 77 : 8— Contributi scientifico-pratici per una migliore conoscenza ed utilizzazione del legno 30 79 : 45— Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins, Supplement 10 : 1— Edagricole, Bologna, pp.
Kiphissia, Athens, pp. Technical Bulletin. Applied Geography 30 : — Rivista di agricoltura subtropicale e tropicale 65 : — Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, held at Humboldt University, Germany, Berlin, 9—11 June , — Annali del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Ferrara 5 : 41— Giornale italiano di Entomologia 11 : — Missione Biologica nel Paese dei Borana.
Materiali per lo studio della fauna eritrea raccolti nel —03 dal Dott. Alfredo Andreini. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 2 : — Halperin J, Damoiseau R. Israel Journal of Entomology 14 : 47— Phytoparasitica 27 4 : — The Central Mediterranean Naturalist 4 1 : 41— Qatar University Science Bulletin 5 : — Journal of Economic Entomology, 26 : — Notes on habits and distribution, with list of described species.
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In: Kraus EJ. Technical Papers on Miscellaneous Forest Insects. A revision of the powder-post beetles of the family Lyctidae of the United States and Europe. Thorictidae bis Cisidae Teredilia, Coccinellidae. Eds The conservation of insects and their habitats. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science supplement 40 : 57— Tropical Science 2 : — Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift 27 4 : — Bostrichidae Latreille Zootaxa : 28— Larvae and Pupae. Adult and Eggs. In: Evans H, Oszako T. Forest Research Institute, Warsaw, In: Hellrigl K. Kalshoven LGE. Entomologische Berichten 23 : — Beaufortia 9 : — In: Wittenberg R.
An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. Chapter 5. BioRisk 4 1 : 51— Zashchita Rastenii 17 2 : 36— Part I. Clavicornia et groupes voisins. Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte Dresden Beiheft 4 : 1— Journal of Stored Products Research 44 1 : — Bostrichidae Latreille, Eds Coleoptera, Beetles. Handbook of Zoology. Zootaxa 3 : — Lechevalier, Paris, pp. Bostrychinae sens. Les Xylopertha. Auspicis et auxilio W. Junk, ed. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Malta 5 : — Zootaxa : 1— Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi 9 3 : — Catalogus de la Entomofauna Aragonesa 25 : 15— Coleoptera Bostrychidae.
Studi sassaresi. Catalogo sinonimico-topografico-bibliografico. Entomologisk Tidskrift : — Instituto de Estudios Canarios Monografia 70 : 1— Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 32 : 5— Sicilia Foreste , Supplemento , 13 : 1— Biological Invasions 9 : — The Central Mediterranean Naturalist 3 4 : — Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Malta 2 : 25— Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Malta 5 : 5— Coleoptera, Bostrychidae sulla vite in Puglia.
Table of contents
Informatore fitopatologico 38 1 : 55— Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 54 12 : — Biodiversity Journal 4 4 : — Nature : — In: Zapparoli M. Gli Insetti di Roma. Nardi G. In: Audisio P. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2, Beetles. Fauna Europaea version 1. Fragmenta entomologica 35 2 : 77— In: Massa B.
Il Naturalista siciliano 19 Supplemento : — Coleoptera: Bostrichidae towards host volatiles. Tecnica Molitoria 55 10 : — Jugoslavenska Akademija Znanosti i Umjetnosti, Split, pp. Histoire Naturelle. Panckoucke, Paris, pp. Eds Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias. Hongos, plantas y animales terrestres.
Gobierno de Canarias, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 78— Eds A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores. In: Tarbinsky YS. Genetical Fund Cadastre of Kyrghyzstan. Volume III. Superclassis Hexapoda Entognatha and Insecta. Bishkek, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37 : — Eds Storia naturale delle Isole Pelagie. American Entomologist 44 : — Neotropical Entomology 35 5 : — Floresta e Ambiente 14 1 : 45— Australian Forestry 65 2 : — Gli insetti. Carlo Delfino Editore, Sassari, pp.
Transactions of the Royal entomological Society of London 83 : — Stabilimento Tipografico Piacentino, Piacenza, pp. Gandolfi, Sanremo, pp. Florida Entomologist 94 2 : — Pakistan entomologist 4 1—2 : 20— Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research Ser. II 43 2 : — Il Naturalista siciliano n. Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia 53 : Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia 55 : — Papeis avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia. Secretaria da Agricultura 16 : — Eds Catalogus Coleopterorum Europae et Caucasi. Editio Tertia London, Berlin, Paris, — Integrative Zoology 5 2 : — Cambridge University Press, London, pp.
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science , 40 suppl. Rostom ZMF. Journal of Stored Products Research 29 1 : 27— Bollettino del R. Istituto di Patologia del Libro 2 1 : 1—8. F: coleoptera bostrychidae. Rivista di Agricoltura subtropicale e tropicale 82 : — Department of Information, Malta, 35 pp.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 2 3 : — Forest Insects of Tanzania. Addenda und Fortsetzung. Numquam otiosus 3 : — GeoJournal 41 2 : — Malta Environment and Plannig Authority. Annual report and accounts : 33— Eds Introduction of alien species of flora and fauna. Insecta Coleoptera. Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia 15 : 1—7. Dirasat 10 1 : 57— ZooKeys 26 : 33— African Journal of Biotechnology 10 72 : — Informatore fitopatogico 14 : — Parte seconda.
Proceedings of the Royal entomological Society of London A 36 : — Apate monachus Fabr. Pests and diseases Volume 2 Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton Metropole, England, November 17—20, , — Orsis 27 : 29— Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 31 53 : 1— Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 32 6 : 1— Frey a Tutzing.
Entomologische Arbeiten aus dem Museum G. Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 36 14 : 1— Integrating resilience and adaptive management with those existing budgets is thus the quickest way for them to get traction. Hint: take the number of council members, and divide by one. In Vietnam, America won most battles, but lost the war. Part of the problem is ignorance: few communities have anyone who understands the dynamics of revitalization well enough to create a strategy. Our economic, ecological, and social future now depends on our extending such concern and compassion to our communities and planet.
Our survival—or at least our quality of life—depend on it. Humans and wildlife worldwide are suffering as never before, and both are in greater peril than ever before. What we destroy, destroys us. Since strategies are our path to success, they become our primary interface with our world, and thus determine in large part how the world responds to us. Thus, what we restore, restores us. What we revitalize, revitalizes us. Similarly, if I ask what their strategy is, they hand me a plan or a vision statement. Leaders of cities, planning departments and redevelopment agencies often do most of the right things when trying to bring a place back to life, but fail to produce revitalization or resilience for two reasons:.
Why are such two very fundamental mistakes so common? This book is a guide for social, economic, and environmental change agents, public and private, who wish to be truly effective. It describes how to strengthen what works in your community or region, and how to eliminate or bypass obstacles places put in the way of their own success.
They want to keep or increase it if they do have it. This book will show you how to help bring that about. But, even armed with this knowledge, revitalizing a city or region—not to mention our planet—is hard. Photo credit: Adobe Stock. Virtually all communities want to attract new residents, employers and real estate investors…and keep the ones they have. To succeed, they must do One Thing above all others: inspire confidence in a better local future, both short-term and long-term.
Not hope. Not optimism. But too much optimism can be deleterious, as can false non-evidence-based confidence. This is likely the beginning of the end for the heroic growth spurt in population and wealth caused by what I think of as the Hydrocarbon Revolution rather than the Industrial Revolution. A famous Harvard study in the s found that optimistic students had more success in all aspects of their early life and, eventually, they even lived longer. No one likes to hear bad news, but in my experience, no one hates it as passionately as the U.
Less optimistic Europeans and others are more open to gloomy talk. Creating confidence in the future of a place requires a flow of credible progress. Good leaders help communities obey the reverse law of gravity: what goes down must come up. In such places, normal Newtonian physics applies: a community at rest tends to stay at rest.
But stasis equates to deterioration in living systems, such as cities. So, while taking a rest after a community improvement effort is restorative, remaining at rest leads to urban decay. Over the past decade, that situation has been improving, with more places adding the missing pieces to their local renewal process.
They need someone with a deep understanding of the kinds of strategic processes that reliably produce economic, social and environmental regeneration. Two polar-opposite strategies are currently popular among revitalizers: critical mass and incremental. Photo credit: King of Hearts via Wikipedia. The incremental redevelopment strategy says that slow, steady, small improvements are better, and the agenda is more likely to be driven by the needs of the residents, and less likely to be dominated by big developers.
The incremental strategy requires little or no up-front investment: projects simply happen when they can. On a citywide scale, New Orleans, Charleston and Savannah come to mind. Both can work, and both can fail. When the critical mass strategy fails, it fails big: hundreds of millions of dollars can be lost. Often, when I congratulate people who are working on affordable housing, transit, walkability, green infrastructure, historic preservation, infrastructure renewal, regenerative agriculture, ecological restoration, climate resilience, etc.
That, in turn, means the local economy is likely getting a low ROI revitalization on investment on their community improvement expenditures. Visionaries, designers, planners, policymakers, and project managers abound. Strategists are rare. As a result, resilience and revitalization efforts often fail due to 1 bad strategy , and 2 no strategy. So, this book is as much about strategy and process as it is about revitalization and resilience.
Most people assume that expertise in their discipline automatically conveys the ability to create a relevant strategy within that discipline. But just as essential to success in any field is an understanding of strategy. Successful community leaders know the key is having the right strategy, and an effective process to integrate ALL of the above activities and disciplines.
Every one of the professionals in the above list are partially right: their activity probably contributes to revitalization. But few acknowledge that theirs is only a small part of the overall process. Nor do they have anyone who knows how to create one. Revitalization is an emergent quality of a complex adaptive system; whether a body, a swamp or an economy. But an appropriate strategic process can greatly increase the likelihood of success, the speed of success, and the quality of success.
In the right place at the right time—and with a lot of luck—any of those above-listed, narrowly-focused activities can trigger revitalization. But what reliably triggers it—and keeps it going—is a process that aligns all of those activities toward a common goal. And that process must be driven by an regenerative strategy. The above list mostly comprises tactics, and tactics without strategies have very limited outcomes. True success—such as resilient economic growth—derives from a strategic process or luck. Image Copyright by Castle Rock Entertainment.
But trying to reduce community revitalization to just one—or even a few—of the factors listed above is like reducing personal happiness to just health, just money, or just relationships. Sprawling onto arable land or wildlife habitat is just dumb, no matter how intelligently we do it. I promise to only use a. Some sprawl is less damaging than other sprawl, but sprawl is sprawl, and less damage is not regeneration. So some sprawl will eventually be needed, and it should be intelligent sprawl.
If they think they have, they probably need more innovative thinking, not more sprawl. Studying the past 20 years, researchers recently found that the displacement of long-term, low-income, minority residents from revitalized neighborhoods gentrification is not as common as believed, though it can be quite severe in the places—such as Washington, DC—where it is happening. In fact, those researchers discovered that the opposite is far more common: lower-income residents tend to move from revitalized places less frequently than they move from non-revitalized neighborhoods. The reason is common sense: revitalized places offer a better quality of life for all, regardless of income: nicer parks, better shopping, prettier and safer streetscapes, more job opportunities, better transit, etc.
The major problem with most revitalization efforts is that they comprise mostly tactics, with little or no strategy. Short-term benefits sometimes result, but seldom long-term gains. Lots of activity, but not much insight or shared purpose. They are busy redeveloping, renewing, regenerating, renovating, reimagining, redesigning, replacing, reusing, reconnecting, and repurposing. But they are mostly isolated packages of stuff. Even when unified visually by a plan, they lack a process for building momentum and actually achieving that mysterious emergent quality we call revitalization.
So, much of that good stuff often goes to waste. We fire CEOs who use such grope-in-the-dark approaches to growing a company, but we seem to tolerate it—even expect it—in public leaders. Another major reason places devitalize is because they think revitalization is something one only does when in crisis…a reaction to decline. But ALL places—no matter how healthy, wealthy, and beautiful—should be striving for more strength and vibrance, if only to avoid going backwards.
Places are like people. Having an inspiring, shared vision, a credible strategy, and trusted leaders does this for a community. Many places recede because they treat revitalization as a remedy, rather than as a mode of existence. They forget to continue revitalizing. That lack of action leads to fear and loss of confidence, which creates additional barriers to action.
Places exist in 3 basic states: degeneration, equilibrium, and regeneration. Resilience is a far better goal than stability. As with all complex adaptive systems, cities and nations can shift states seemingly overnight. The triggers for these shifts are often tiny; far out of proportion to the magnitude of the ensuing change.
Strategies are a technology. In the case of strategies, that function is to produce success. After Boeing lost several big military contracts to competitors, its recently-hired CEO, Leanne Caret, adopted a new strategy in Our bodies are technologies, as are our thought constructs techniques that help us achieve an end. Strategies and tactics are thus very simple technologies. A strategy is a technique that increases the likelihood of success for an action, project, or program.
But the situation gets worse. Most places enjoy a surfeit of public and private leaders with expertise in creating buildings, infrastructure, and critical services. But they suffer ignorance of the principles, frameworks, and theory related to revitalization: the process of boosting strength and vibrance. Abandoned Packard automobile factory in Detroit, Michigan. Photo: Adobe Stock. As mentioned earlier, all places need regeneration of some sort, whether after a long decline, a brief catastrophe, an excessive period of comfortable stagnation.
Whatever the causes and goals, the necessary regenerative expertise is similar…and similarly lacking. In many cases, those projects should have revitalized the place, but there was nothing to capture, leverage, and perpetuate their momentum. The right strategy makes needed changes less painful and less expensive, which lubricates the desired shift.
But the shift itself comes from process. The costs are mostly in the projects, but the revitalization is mostly in the process. Processes drive all life on Earth. Plants have a process for turning water, carbon and solar energy into biomass. Animals have a survival process for finding shelter, food and mates. It was because they developed a process for applying a spark or ember to tinder, which ignited kindling, which ignited firewood. Skip one of those, and no warmth is forthcoming. So, process is the real key to success. But not just any management process will do when the desired result is resilient prosperity.
It must be the right program. The right vision. The right strategy. The right policies. The right partners. And the right projects. Bridge of Dom Luis in Oporto, Portugal. Photo via Adobe Stock. But not in a prescriptive manner. In construction, one can have prescriptive specifications or performance specifications. Performance specifications allow you to use the latest knowledge and the most up-to-date materials and technologies to achieve your goals. And so it is with the resilient prosperity process we call reconomics.
Reconomics is not an economic theory, although it contains one. Neither is it an economic policy framework, although it makes use of policy. Reconomics can be seen as an adaptive, circular flow of regenerative program, vision, strategy, policy, partnership, and projects for the purpose of creating resilient prosperity. This book will explain—and give examples of—that process in action.
It will also describe each of the components: regenerative programs, regenerative visions, regenerative strategies, regenerative policies, regenerative partnerships and regenerative projects. Every member of the panel was a national redevelopment leader, presenting many sophisticated ways of slicing and dicing the numbers to get a better feel for trends. All of them agreed that the key indicator was quality of life. If you were in Rwanda in July of , you would probably choose a vision centered on stopping citizens from hacking each other to death.
That could be seen as a prerequisite of revitalization. But it still relates to quality of life.
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This book will make specific recommendations as to the kinds of programs, visions, strategies, policies, partnerships and projects that will help you revitalize your career, your organization, your community or your nation. But turning that advice into the revitalization of what you care about is going to be a uniquely personal—and probably very enjoyable—exercise.
The act of planning is good. If you are required to create a plan—or if you are convinced that having a plan will enhance your success—then by all means do so. The same goes for creating a design, which is often done too early, thus sabotaging efforts.
Academics reading this will, no doubt, be horrified. But this is actually the norm as regards this subject. I had long assumed that to be the case, but to confirm it, I consulted several high-ranking executives at the American Planning Association, of which I used to be a member. Such research would likely show that it had never been implemented, or that it had failed. The Building Owners and Managers Association BOMA had an informal initiative that was trying to figure out why the functional as opposed to aesthetic design of buildings never seemed to improve much.
Materials often improved, but the underlying design flaws were repeated decade after decade, resulting in massive additional maintenance and energy costs. They determined that these repeated architectural failures were due to the lack of forensic analysis. There was no data because there was no feedback process: building managers had no way to communicate problems back to the designers.
As a result, the architects never become aware of deficiencies in their work. In other words: the architectural profession lacks an effective learning mechanism. One property owner decided it was time to fix that problem. After that period, a survey of the building manager and the occupants would be taken, regarding their happiness with the building from a comfort and maintenance perspective. As a result, this feedback loop of evaluation-learning-improvement was never established. The same situation exists with planners: no one judges or measures the outcome of their work, which is why my research is anecdotal.
Children stop touching hot stoves when they feel pain. Both the planning and the architectural professions lack pain receptors. He also said that he knew of no efforts within APA intended to study or facilitate such processes. Apparently, the only process in which planners have any interest is the process of creating a plan. Yet another reason most community revitalization efforts fail is because people confuse the parts with the whole. Revitalization is an ongoing process.
The above list comprises one-time projects. One can mix pigments all day long—and do it absolutely perfectly—but never produce a piece of art. Strategic processes make all the difference in the world…and to the world. Are we ready to focus more seriously on restoring already-damaged and depleted natural resources and on revitalizing already-damaged and depleted communities? Or lack thereof. Devitalization happens to all places at some time, and revitalization is desired by most places at all times. Why do most treat it like some unmanageable form of magic?
Or a Ph. But when everyone is in charge, no one is in charge, and chaos often ensues. So, is revitalization a Grand Delusion with no substance, or an industry in need of a profession? When we look at a place transformed from dirty, hopeless, sickly, divided, and poor to clean, healthy, optimistic, harmonious, and prosperous, are we looking at something real?
Is it an activity that should be taken more seriously? Is in need of a strategic process to deliver it more reliably? Drought at Dhankar Lake in India. It also leads to climate restoration. In my first book, The Restoration Economy , I pointed out that sustainable development is what we should have been doing since the Industrial Revolution started. That same dynamic has been playing out as regards the global climate crisis.
For the past two decades or so, the focus has mostly been on mitigating climate change and adapting to it. Carbon negative, not low-carbon or carbon-neutral. By all means, continue any climate mitigation efforts that are working, but the path forward must be climate restoration. This book is about a path to creating resilient prosperity for communities, regions and nations that simultaneously:.carolsilbergeld.com/wp-includes/2315.php
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Every place needs revitalization. We tend to lose what we take for granted. Concentrated wealth and concentrated poverty fragment places, and disguises their overall decline. So, investing in the reconnection and revitalization of distressed neighborhoods is also an investment in social resilience. Revitalization is defined by the gap between a previous baseline condition—good or bad—and an improved present or future condition.
In these days of more and worse disasters fueled by the climate crisis, even places ruled by conservative politicians are realizing they need more resilience. So, if resilient prosperity is what everyone wants, why do so few enjoy it? Why do so few public leaders know how to create it? Once upon a time, we humans grew our economies—and accommodated growing populations—by sprawling, and by extracting irreplaceable virgin resources. In other words, we were adapting the planet to our needs, a mode I call adaptive conquest. In most cases, those adaptations were solely for our needs: wildlife be damned.
Many indigenous cultures had ways of limiting their population growth, and used resources in a more sustainable manner. But they usually went the way of wildlife towards extinction when the sprawl and extraction machine of adaptive conquest cultures discovered their lands. That adaptive conquest model has had many unintended consequences—and it has obvious limits on a planet of finite size with a growing population—but it worked fine for about 12, years.
This was the period that scientists refer to as the Holocene: the epoch during which human activity started to affect the planet. How can we survive and even thrive on our tiny planet, despite exploding populations in Africa, Latin America and most of the Muslim world? In other words, we must adapt to our adaptations, a mode I call adaptive renewal. Economic growth based on adaptive conquest comes in a variety of flavors—capitalism, socialism, communism, etc. In the Balearic archipelago of Spain is a paradise called Cabrera Island. Between to , it was a base for the Spanish Armed Forces, although military usage actually goes back to Between and , Isla de Cabrera was a hellhole of suffering for humans and wildlife alike.
Only made it out alive, due to starvation, disease, neglect, and abuse. During the 13th and 14th Century, the island was a base of pirate operations, due to its well-concealed harbor. Pirate base. Death camp. Armed garrison. Nature reserve. The way humans have constantly adapted the island to their changing needs serves as a microcosmic metaphor for our entire history—and future—on this planet. The global adaptive renewal megatrend has arisen from the convergence of three trends, each of which is huge and of vital importance in its own right: regeneration of natural, built and socioeconomic assets ; resilience physical, economic and social ; and adaptive management which boosts the success of regeneration and resilience efforts by combining learning with action.
Revitalization makes poor places wealthier. It makes wealthy places healthier. It makes healthy, wealthy places healthier, wealthier, and happier. Combining revitalization with resilience makes the good times last. Managing revitalization and resilience efforts in an adaptive manner enables us to take action before we fully understand the problem, and keeps our remedies responsive to new knowledge, challenges and opportunities. You can recognize the adaptive renewal megatrend at work in places that are constantly repurposing, renewing and reconnecting their natural, built, and socioeconomic environments in an integrated manner, that are monitoring their results and that are improving their methods as they go along.
Resilience efforts are mostly long-term, with few short-term benefits. That makes them a hard sell to both politicians and citizens, and thus difficult to fund. Revitalization, on the other hand, is an easy sell. Combining the two is thus logical. But both revitalization and resilience efforts usually have the same problem: lack of adaptive management. Adaptive management is a healthy recent trend that allows places and organizations to implement and evolve plans simultaneously. There are six key processes in adaptive management: 1 assess the problem; 2 design the solution; 3 implement the solution; 4 monitor the results; 5 evaluate the results; 6 adjust the solution.
Adaptive management is a global trend in natural resource management that has yet to be widely adopted in urban applications. This is because natural resource managers and restoration ecologists are very aware of the deficiencies in their knowledge. As a result, they wisely developed adaptive management, in which plans are just starting points.
The business world is also catching on. Adaptive management arose primarily from two relatively recent realms of scientific research: 1 restoration ecology the corresponding practice of which is known as ecological restoration , and 2 complexity science the study of how complex adaptive systems arise, grow, die and are reborn. Many insights—both useful and profound—have derived from complexity science, and you use technologies every day that are based on those insights.
Here are two of those insights that apply directly to the process of bringing places back to life: 1 Qualitatively new behaviors tend to emerge in dissipative complex systems that are out of equilibrium; and 2 Healthy complex systems tend to lie at the border of phase transitions and bifurcation points. The bottom line? I was one of the first members of the Society for Ecological Restoration , and was peripherally involved with the Santa Fe Institute , where I met complexity economist W. Adaptive management arose because the rise of ecological restoration quickly revealed our vast ignorance as to how ecosystems form, how they build and maintain resilience, how they collapse and how they recover.
This was not a learning-intensive process. Few activities reveal our lack of understanding of natural processes faster than the process of trying to recreate a damaged or destroyed ecosystem. The science of restoration ecology has probably revealed more useful insights into the dynamics of natural systems in the past two decades than we learned in the previous two millennia.
So, our search for better ways of managing urban revitalization—and the discovery of underlying principles, taxonomies, and frameworks—started with those scientists who bring complex systems back to life for a living: restoration ecologists. This can lead to useful insights and metaphors for thinking about cities.
One of the most important lessons emerging from the restoration of natural systems is the need for adaptive management. Urban managers seem to be less aware of their ignorance than ecosystem managers, so comprehensive plans adopted by cities are expected to function unchanged for 5, 10, or even 15 years.
But few such plans are ever implemented, and few that are implemented succeed to any significant degree. Urban leaders seeking socioeconomic revitalization have much to learn from restoration ecology. The results of both their tactics and their strategies are monitored scientifically, and the lessons published in scientific journals such as Restoration Ecology , and in practitioner journals such as Ecological Restoration.
The starting point for this transition to adaptive management in urban environments will likely begin where the city and nature meet. This increases our ability to carry out activities that will result in the greatest gains for waterway health. Adaptive management relies on focused monitoring, investigations and research to build our knowledge of waterways and understand changing environmental conditions, outcomes of management approaches and the effect of external drivers such as climate change. We evaluate these programs to inform our planning and implementation and report outcomes to ensure knowledge is shared.
How did Chicago adapt its planning to fix its urban heat island problem, which killed people in ? By repurposing roofs. But that design actually changes the local weather. Besides cooling the city, they:. Unchanging building codes, zoning, development incentives, and most other aspects of governance almost inevitably shift from contributing to community progress to retarding it. But having adaptive policies is one thing. When I was doing some work in Belize back in the 80s, a local environmentalist was bemoaning the fact that the only way he could take ownership of the land he loved was by destroying it.
And most of those tourists come to see nature. Throughout the 20th century, water engineers seemed to be on a quest to pollute the maximum amount of clean water with any given amount of raw sewage or industrial discharge. Diluting 1 gallon of sewage with , gallons of clean water yields , gallons of polluted water.
Combined sewer and stormwater systems made sense a century ago, when urban populations were relatively small, sewage treatment technologies were not in wide use, and cities still had significant amounts of permeable surfaces to absorb rainwater. Three examples of other potential crossover lessons:. The constant arrival and territorial expansion of invasive species is just one of myriad factors creating a need for adaptive management of landscapes.
In the U. A very conservative estimate by the U. Those charged with managing the problem have to juggle removing well-established invasive species, reducing the introduction of new invasive species, and reestablishing native species…all while the climate is changing and human activities are altering the air, soil and water. Creating an effective, static long-term plan for such a mission under such circumstances is quite literally impossible. The only static situations are those devoid of life. Strategies and tactics must adapt not only to the changing situation, but to the changes they themselves cause, resulting in a constant—and often accelerating—loop of cause and effect, feedback and evolution.
This ignorance of complex adaptive systems dynamics is rife among managers of systems other than nature, such as human societies and economies. As a result, adaptive management is appearing everywhere, though often not by that name. Business people, for instance, have probably encountered the Minimum Viable Product strategy used by many technology start-ups.
Want a specific example of using adaptive management to revitalize a downtown? Look at parking policies and traffic flow. Some say free or cheap parking causes traffic jams and undermines efforts to improve public transit. Others say traffic jams are a good problem to have: the goal is more shoppers, so the more free parking, the better. Still others say expensive parking is best: it encourages pedestrian-friendly, transit-oriented development, and the increased revenue funds downtown improvements.
All of them are. Downtowns evolve and devolve like all living systems, so parking policies must adapt to current problems, needs and goals. It only takes one downtown parking ticket to convince a shopper that the sprawl mall is the better place to go. In that case, a switch to free parking might stimulate more visitors. This will encourage more retailers, which will stimulate more visitors, and so on in a positive feedback loop of revitalization.
But if that loop continues long enough, it will eventually result in traffic jams. Parking fees can then be reintroduced, starting with cheap parking. Parking policies are deceptively simple, but they are just one of myriad factors affecting the health and survival of your community that can be managed via policies. So, parking is a good place to start your journey into adaptive public management. The rate of visitors quadrupled delighting the merchants and the crime rate dropped by half. So to many cars degrade a city center, as can a paucity of cars. What revitalizes a dying place might devitalize a vibrant place.
And what revitalizes a place now can kill the same place later. So, revisions to parking policies might not be needed as frequently as before, as algorithms take over. Over 30 years ago, Buffalo city leaders were ahead of their time in banning cars from their Main Street. This greatly improved the quality of life downtown, but the desired economic revitalization never manifested. The problem is that they never followed-through on the logical next step after eliminating the traffic problem: taking advantage of that increased quality of life to add what the downtown and its businesses desperately needed: more residents.
One would think that the relationship of housing to residents to customers would be fairly easy to perceive. Not so at that time in Buffalo, apparently. How did they plan to revitalize Main Street? Pedestrians do. A good strategy affects the underlying cause to create the desired effect.
It might mean that most people panic in the face of adversity, and lose track of their purpose. It might mean that having a plan is useless. Say that three times rapidly! The switch to adaptive management need not be disruptive. After all, all one is really doing is injecting common sense into the previously rigid, blind-faith-in-the-plan culture. Get over it. Due to the rapid rise in vacant commercial properties—malls, big box stores, office buildings, etc. They feel we should be constructing—and renovating—in a way that accommodates the desired immediate use, but that responds to changing market demands or preferences by making it easy for the structure to be reworked for a productive new life.
Projects, plans, and programs for improving our built, natural, socioeconomic, and geopolitical environments must adapt not just to rapid change, but to an accelerating rate of change in each of these intrinsically-connected arenas. Such conditions are highly corrosive to 5-year plans, which now decompose and putrefy at an accelerated rate. Longer-term plans are best suited to fundraising pitches, political posturing, and other fiction-rich endeavors. An evolutionary ethos is the key to success in such an environment. The only preservative we can add to our rust-prone plans is adaptability.
These days, only our shared visions of our desired future should be long-term, not the strategies, policies or plans we devise for achieving them. While some manifestations of the adaptive renewal megatrend are well-established, many others are more recent or are still emerging. The latter include adaptive strategies related to climate change, sea level rise, and natural disasters, such as for cities, agriculture, and natural resources including the creation of novel ecosystems.
Passive adaptive management is normal planning plus the monitoring and evaluation of results. Common sense, in other words. As mentioned earlier, one characteristic that defines all living systems is the capacity to surprise. Elwha Dam in Built in , demolished in The Elwha River and its salmon runs have spectacularly come back to life.
In addition to maximizing efficiency, the primary purpose of an engineer is to eliminate surprises. This is wonderful skill when dealing with structures: no one likes driving over a bridge that behaves in an unpredictable manner. Removing surprises from a living system is synonymous with killing it. But even their efficiency goal can be problematic. Nature does many things that are inefficient in the microcosm, but highly efficient in the macrocosm. The rest become food for other species. These are two of the major reasons the U.
Army Corps of Engineers—in controlling the life out of our estuaries and waterways—has done more economic damage to America than all foreign armies combined. It created jobs, boosted real estate values, and increased quality of life. It revitalized, in other words. The High Line was initially a bottom-up flow, a resident-led effort that led to a top-down flow of support by the city.
It accomplished all of this through reuse of existing assets an elevated railroad track , which reconnected neighborhoods and reestablished flows. Single-use places are a form of disconnection and isolation, whether urban or agricultural. Civil engineering has traditionally been oriented toward isolating functions, separating asset types and preventing flows. Revitalization is the process of regaining lost vitality. Resilience is the process of retaining vitality.
Resilient prosperity is the process of regaining and retaining vitality. Terminology is important, and becomes even more important when huge sums of money—and the future of communities—are involved. In the 50s and 60s, the U. While most articles about the horrors of urban renewal focus rightly on the human cost, it should be noted that vast numbers of manufacturers and retail businesses fled the downtowns for the suburbs while all of the physical devastation was taking place.
This was an example of destructive federal policymaking: the catalytic funding initially came from the Housing Act of , and was accelerated by the National Interstate Defense and Highways Act of A more-rigorous definition of revitalization might have prevented a lot of unnecessary devitalization. Because it perpetuated the faulty perceptions of slum life that help Westerners feel superior.
It ignored the positive aspects of slum communities, which can often make American suburbs look dysfunctional—even sociopathic—by comparison. These days, many socially-rich slums are being bulldozed In India, to be replaced with the isolated, anonymous life of apartment and condo towers. Why would I want to move? I think the communities we have there are much stronger than you would even have here. Those examples are just a tiny sampling of the suffering that can arise from imprecise terminology. Sometimes, a perfectly good word takes on a negative meaning as a result of bad practices.
In Milton Keynes, England several public housing projects are being demolished and replaced with better housing. The word itself has become toxic. Rendering courtesy of U. Air Force Academy. Some city leaders wanted to boost their tourism revenue by letting the U. This gives the land bank access to state brownfields funding. On the other hand, every plot of land on the planet is contaminated by something—old lead-based paint, oil leaks from vehicles, brake pad dust, etc.
Most homes and lawns in the U. And so it is with resilience, where terminological fuzziness abounds. Part of the problem is that people often say they seek community resilience without specifying the type of resilience: social, natural disaster, climate, economic, etc. Traditionally, cities hit by catastrophe whether sudden and natural, or gradual and socioeconomic have rather mindlessly gone about rebuilding in a way that merely reconstructed what had been lost. Plaza of the Restorationists, Lisbon photo by Storm Cunningham.
I described this concept in my book, The Restoration Economy , showing how Lisbon, Portugal rebuilt the entire city on higher ground after a massive earthquake and tsunami in They were also smart enough to take advantage of the opportunity to correct a number of urban planning mistakes actually, lack of planning. Again: resilience is revitalization plus adaptability. Revitalization makes poor or damaged places wealthier, and wealthy places healthier. Adaptability helps make the good times last. We should keep in mind that health and wealth both in their holistic senses are emergent qualities of doing the right things in the right way for the right amount of time.
So, they should not be goals in themselves. Their nature is too ephemeral, and their emergence is too unpredictable to serve as deliverables. Traditionally applied primarily to materials and individuals, it has now become a goal of institutions and communities as well as restored ecosystems. This guide uses the shorter, more elegant form preferred by scientists and educators, and by most English-speakers worldwide. The desire for revitalization can be triggered by a long, slow decline, a sudden disaster, or simply dissatisfaction with the current quality of life. The desire for resilience is often triggered by recent or impending disaster: a fishery on the edge of collapse, a fragile economy, climate-related agricultural challenges, etc.
So, revitalization is motivated by present-day pain, whereas resilience is motivated by a desire to avoid future pain. The two goals have obvious overlaps. This book is not about resilience in the traditional sense. There are many excellent books on that subject. Judith Rodin , published in November of Her page work on resilience was especially insightful because it included a chapter on revitalization.
Refocusing these established community and regional assets on resilient prosperity is thus the low-hanging fruit. An obvious and frequent connection between resilience and regeneration is in post-disaster situations. This book thus comes at resilience from an oblique angle. They know that one of the most important principles of resilience is flexibility, yet they try to use their old, inflexible planning and management systems to implement it. A related area in which resilience efforts get into trouble is in making safety their primary or even sole goal. Safety sounds like a reasonable objective, but it can become a rigid, fear-based ethos, preventing us from taking the risks needed to innovate and become more flexible and, ironically, safer.
There is no safety: there is only safer. In excessive fear lies vulnerability. Resilience makes revitalization durable, and adaptive management keeps it relevant via flexible implementation. Together, these three trends form the conceptual basis of a path to resilient prosperity. This book will turn those broad concepts into a specific process you can put to use immediately in your community or organization.
Adaptive management constantly reorients actions towards what actually works. Resilience and adaptation most often converge when places prepare for climate change-related sea level rise and storms. Not surprisingly, Florida has a great deal of activity in this regard. Their Department of Economic Opportunity DEO offers many web resources on community resilience and adaptation planning. They list dozens of potential funding sources for such projects.
- Silo stories | Patrice Fitzgerald;
- The Stones and the Scarlet Thread: An Amazing Story Woven Through the History of Man, As Told by the Gematria of the Bible: New Evidence from the Bibles Number Code, Stonehenge & the Great Pyramid.
- The Silo Archipelago Series?
- See a Problem?!
- He Is As he Eats.
But adaptation efforts are not the same as adaptive management. While shared visions and goals can enhance success, adaptive management helps ensure progress even in their absence, and even when the goals turn out to be faulty. Adaptive management is thus more focused on the journey of renewal, rather than the destination. A good revitalization strategy will, of course, adapt to the challenges of a changing climate. That requires stronger, not weaker, environmental regulations.
Likewise, a good climate resilience strategy will adapt to the challenges of a changing economy. Writers write. Fixers fix. The ability to fix assets—or situations such as depressed communities —is often the only characteristic fixers share. They arise from all socioeconomic backgrounds, professions, and age groups. So, the job of those who wish to revitalize places is simple: either become a fixer, or attract fixers.
The Philippine Islands: a vital crossroads during the first globalization period
If one is successful at the latter, one joins the ranks of fixers. In our present-day world—which is more broken than at any previous time in history even our climate is broken! For most of the past century, community redevelopment has been a top-down activity. It was envisioned and run by political leaders and government agencies. When a public leadership vacuum existed, it was controlled by real estate developers, whose projects both sprawl and redevelopment were often at odds with the best interests of the community. Over the past couple of decades, a strong movement towards bottom-up resident-led revitalization efforts emerged.
Our modern times—characterized by ubiquitous and accelerating economic, environmental, and social crises—has collided with an onslaught of disintermediating technologies such as crowdsourcing and crowdfunding that bypass traditional command-and-control hierarchies. The result is that leadership of community revitalization has become diffuse, emergent, and opportunistic. Is resident-led renewal a real thing? Fire houses, police stations, schools closed, garbage ignored, streets unrepaired.
That is why New York grew again, instead of shrank. The same pattern of regeneration took hold in small doses slowly in Savannah, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, San Antonio and more. Anyone can have a great idea for renewing their neighborhood, city or region. This has always been the case. This is the root of the rise of fixers. The flip side is that they must also learn to resist initiatives that retard revitalization, whether they come from elected leaders or powerful developers.
These fixes could be in a city, such as renewing an empty building, decrepit park, or drug-ridden neighborhood. They could be in a rural area, such as restoring farmlands depleted by overgrazing or industrial agriculture. Or they could be in a natural place, such as reviving a damaged reef or estuary. What they hate is being changed. So too, most people enjoy self-organizing into effective groups and teams.
This explains why so many community engagement exercises yield so few lasting, measurable results. Most fixers fix only the present existing problems. Revitalization without resilience, in other words. These are often the private fixers. Public fixers also fix the present, but are also responsible for the longer term—fixing the future—so they must also identify and reduce vulnerabilities.
Many fail outright. Of those that succeed, many will achieve a burst of growth and renewal, only to see it fade. This can be even more painful and psychologically devastating to the citizens than outright failure. Syncing your community or organization with the adaptive renewal megatrend involves two key areas of change:. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time. But many places do give up, and citizens acquiesce. Adaptive management has no endpoint.
It keeps regeneration and resilience processes viable. Identifying such overlaps early can greatly increase both funding and public support for expensive projects. But these same places often have a wealth of damaged and depleted landscapes. It would work almost anywhere—especially arid lands—as there are few places on the planet where the local water resources, wildlife, and topsoil have not already been significantly degraded.
At the time, many of the U. Over a century of rampant, unregulated deforestation to build ships and cities had ensured that outcome. Too bad Teddy never created a strategy to activate that vision. The U. The still-emerging field of regenerative economics was launched in with the publication of my first book, The Restoration Economy.
Today, new approaches to restorative economic development are arising on a regular basis. The Restoration Economy was the first book to document the rapid rise of a broad spectrum of regenerative industries and disciplines. Some of them were quite new at the time of its publication, such as restoration ecology and brownfields remediation.
In fact, the U. These eight sectors involve the regeneration of the natural and built environments. Revitalization of the socioeconomic environment is a fairly automatic outcome of that work, if restorative development of the natural and built environments is done strategically, and with that goal in mind. The good news is that regeneration of our built, natural and socioeconomic environments exploded after The Restoration Economy first appeared.
But I enjoy thinking that the book might have accelerated the trend just a teensy bit. What was exceptional back in is now pretty much the norm. Everyone wants to get on with restoring nature and regenerating our cities. We just need to add one rather major new agenda to that original mix: restoring our climate.
How about professional hockey? The NHL Foundation pledged to restore gallons of stream flow to the Deschutes River in Oregon for every goal scored during the regular season. Regenerative economics was advanced six years later when McGraw-Hill Professional a now-defunct division of McGraw-Hill published my second book, Rewealth. The Restoration Economy was documenting a historic shift in the global economy, so it was more theoretical. Rewealth contains case studies of places coming back to life in a dramatic and unexpected manner—as well as the professionals and businesses that help them do so—so it was more practical.
It was published by Berrett-Koehler Publishers , the same wonderful folks who had published The Restoration Economy a decade earlier. The architecture of ownership is key. Kelly and Korten were right that affecting the behavior of those who own capital and real assets is crucial to restoring both our planet and confidence in our economies. The majority of economic activity worldwide now consists of gambling. There is no effective difference between these derivatives and making a bet at the horse track.
They are merely a way for those with access to privileged information to siphon money out of the market. If we want economic restoration, we need to first cleanse the economy of giant parasites. Otherwise, it would be like setting a boat on a new course, while ignoring the gaping holes in its hull. Only altering the fundamental basis of wealth creation can subvert it. Economic activity that increases our resource base can flip that pyramid on its head, creating ever-greater health, wealth, and happiness for all. This minimizes disruption to our political structures, since money is the basis of political power.
In other words, this is a revolution that can—in theory—be implemented without bloodshed. The regeneration of our planet could be reduced to a change in prefix. Transitioning to a global or local restoration economy happens when we move… …from development to redevelopment …from despoilment to remediation …from depletion to replenishment …from demolition to reuse …from destruction to restoration …from degeneration to regeneration. In other words, we need to stop being degenerates, and start becoming regenerates.
The de-re shift could be greatly accelerated via a shift to true-cost AKA: full-cost accounting, but that would undermine far too many huge corporation with powerful political connections. The lack of true-cost accounting enables many archaic, inappropriate industries to live far past their sell-by date. Fossil fuel firms continue to claim that renewables are too expensive. In fact, fossil fuels are many times more expensive, but their costs are hidden. Many other authors have written entire books on the subject, so let me just offer one example to the uninitiated. Canadian tar sands extraction is a top contender for the most criminally-irresponsible industry on the planet.